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HIS 7 - What is History?: Referencing

Investigating the Ancient Past,Primary and secondary sources, archaeology, Conservation etc...

Online Referencing tools - the easy way



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These web based online reference generators will help you create your Bibliography. Remember to  collate it in Alphabetical Order.

Danebank in text citation

Numbered footnotes
In some subjects, you may be required to use numbered footnote to reference instead of
in-text citation. Things you need to know about using footnotes:

 Notes should be numbered consecutively, beginning with 1, throughout the essay. e.g.
“Rome's slave workers came from all over Europe, Africa and the Middle East.”1

 Footnotes are placed after the final punctuation mark and are indicated by a smaller
raised number. Go to Insert  e.g.
“Many slaves worked in private homes, doing the shopping, cooking and

 The first reference to a book MUST give ALL the information necessary to identify it.
This means the footnote should give the same information as is given in the
bibliography. IN ADDITION, the page number is given to enable the reader to quickly
locate the reference.

 The second and subsequent references to a resource need not be as detailed as the
first. We use the abbreviated Latin phrases: ibid. and op. cit.

 ibid. (short for ibidem - meaning in the same work) is used when a quote comes from
the same source as the IMMEDIATELY PRECEDING footnote and on the same page.
“In many Roman homes, slaves were treated kindly, and sometimes the
children of a trusted slave were brought up as companions for their master's

 ibid. can also be used when a quote comes from the same source as the
IMMEDIATELY PRECEDING footnote, but if it comes from a different page, the page
number must be added. e.g.
“...almost all farmworkers were slaves...”4

 op.cit. (opere citato meaning ‘in the work cited’) is a shortcut used when a resource
already cited is quoted again, but IS NOT the immediately preceding one.
“A wealthy Roman might keep up to 100 slaves in his town house.”5

You can create bibliographies electronically at select your
preferred style. For Harvard use

1 Williams, B. Ancient Roman jobs. Heinemann, Oxford: Heinemann, 2002. p.10.
2 Chandler, F. The Usborne Encyclopedia of the Roman World. London: Usborne, 2001. p.49.
3 ibid. (quote comes from same book as above AND on same page)
4 ibid., p.54 (quote comes from same book BUT from DIFFERENT page)
5 Williams, B. op.cit. p.11


Using Microsoft Word to create references

MLA Referencing - at Danebank - unless requested otherwise

The MLA system uses in-text citations rather than footnotes or endnotes. The citations in-text are very brief, usually just the author's family name and a relevant page number. These citations correspond to the full references in the list of works cited at the end of the document.

Instructions and examples in this MLA guide are based on more detailed information in:
MLA Handbook. 8th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016.

Monash University MLA Libguide

In-text citations - general points

  • If the author's name is mentioned in the sentence, only cite the page number.
  • If the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, cite both the name and the page number.
  • Font and capitalisation must match that in the reference list.
  • Long quotations (more than four lines) should be indented.
  • If you are citing more than one reference at the same point in a document, separate the references with a semicolon e.g. (Smith 150; Jackson 41).
  • If the work has no author, use the title.
  • If you are citing two works by the same author, put a comma after the author's name and add title words. eg (Smyth, "Memories of Motherhood" 77) to distinguish between them in the in-text citation. Do this when citing each of the sources throughout the piece of writing.
  • If two authors have the same surname, use their first initial e.g. (G. Brown 26).

Works Cited list - general points

  • The recommended heading for the reference list is Works Cited, which should be centred.
  • Each reference should be formatted with double-spacing and a hanging indent.
  • Capitalise the first word of the title or subtitle, and all other significant words.
  • Author's names should be listed with full forenames if known.
  • The name of the first author is inverted to list the family name first. If there are additional authors their names are not inverted (e.g. Smith, Adam, and Laura Childs).
  • If you cite more than one work by the same author, give the name in the first entry only. Thereafter, use three hyphens instead of the name, e.g. ---.
  • If a reference does not have an author, list it by title. Ignore the leading article (A, The etc.) when inserting the reference into the alphabetical works cited list.
  • If you cannot validate a reference's authorship, date of publication or its authoritativeness, especially if it is an online resource, consider using another similar reference that is more authoritative instead.
  • For a journal article in an online database (e.g. via the Library website) include the name of the database (italicized).
  • Use the URL that you see in the browser (omitting http:// or https://) unless the source identifies a DOI or permalink associated with it.
  • When the title page lists two or more publishers which seem equally responsible for the work, cite each of them separating the names with a forward slash (e.g. Cambridge UP / Routledge). 

Watch this video to learn how to create a hanging indent when you are compiling your Works Cited list in MLA format.  These instructions are for MS Word 2010.


Extension History - Chicago referencing

Chicago Notes-Bibliography Style

The Notes-Bibliography style is one of two different types of referencing outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition.

Consecutively numbered markers in the text refer the reader to bibliographic citations, in footnotes or endnotes, which acknowledge the source of information. The examples given in this guide illustrate the use of footnotes, termed "notes."

bibliography at the end of the document provides full details of all sources cited, and consulted, by the writer.


Creating footnotes

Numbered markers in the text may be created using the footnote function of word processing software. Footnote markers are consecutive, superscript (raised), Arabic numerals. They should be inserted at the end of a sentence, or at the end of a clause, following any punctuation used, (including brackets).

The corresponding number at the beginning of the footnote is full size, not raised (superscript) and followed by a full stop.

Citing Example:

"Ultimately we will learn more about some of the celebrated events in Australian history if we turn to the old almanacs and their tables of the moon."1

First note:
   1. Geoffrey Blainey, Black Kettle and Full Moon: Daily Life in a Vanished Australia (Penguin/Viking: Melbourne, 2003), 7.

Bibliographic citations in footnotes

Bibliographic citations in footnotes may appear in a full form, or in a shortened form.

Full bibliographic details of a work are given in the footnote at which first reference is made to it. Any further, or subsequent, references to this work in the footnotes, are presented as shortened citations. A shortened citation consists of the author's family name, and the title of the work, shortened if more than four words.

However, if your bibliography includes all works cited in your notes, the Chicago Manual 16th edition (Section 14.14) advises that even those notes which contain the first citation of a particular work may be in shortened form.

The examples provided in these pages give both the full and shortened forms of citations for different types of works.

Formatting citations in footnotes

Punctuation, spacing and the order of elements in the citation are important, and examples should be followed carefully. Notice for instance:

  • The author's name is not inverted, and is written in full.
  • Publishing details of books are enclosed in brackets.
  • Journal titles, book chapter titles are enclosed in double quotation marks.

The first line of each footnote is indented two spaces from the page margin.


Creating the bibliography

Your bibliography should document all the works you consulted in preparing your essay, whether you cited them directly, or not.

Entries should be listed alphabetically by the first author's surname or family name. If there is no named author, list by the first word in the work's title, ignoring 'A', 'An' or 'The'.

If the entry consists of more than one line of text, the following lines of that entry are indented by two spaces.

Formatting citations in the bibliography

The format of citations in the bibliography is similar to that used in the full footnote citation. However, the following differences are important.

  • The name of the first author is inverted, so that the surname or family name appears first.
  • The elements, or sections, of the citation are separated by full stops, not commas.
  • Publishing details for books are not enclosed in brackets.

Further information

The Chicago manual of style, 16th ed. Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 2010. Available online.